The condition of water used in bread doughs, specifically hardness and PH, also affect gluten. Water hardness refers to mineral content of the water, especially its calcium content. Water w/ high mineral content is called hard-they strengthen gluten, often to much, making the dough too elastic and hard to work.
How does gluten affect dough?
The gluten is formed during kneading of the bread dough. Kneading causes the gluten strands to get stronger and longer. However, if too much gluten is formed then the bread dough does not stretch so easily. This will cause the bread to become tough and chewy.
What are the four ways to control gluten development in doughs and batters?
Here are four things you can do.
- Start with the right flour. Well-stocked supermarkets carry a variety of wheat flours: all-purpose, cake, whole wheat, bread. …
- Beware of Water. Gluten doesn’t even exist until flour becomes wet. …
- Handle with Care. …
- Understand how other ingredients affect gluten.
Which changes are caused by heating dough or batter?
The rise in baked products is caused by the gases present in the dough or batter. These gases are carbon dioxide, air, and steam. When heat is applied these gases expand and leaven the product.
What are the three main ways that gluten is developed during bread making?
What are the three main ways that gluten is developed during bread making? Gluten develops and doughs mature through mixing (mechanical dough development), through the use of maturing agents, such as ascorbic acid (chemical dough development), and during fermentation and proofing.
How does dough temperature affect gluten development?
TEMPERATURE & GLUTEN Temperature also affects gluten development: At warmer temperatures gluten in bread dough exhibits less elastic properties ▪ At cooler temperatures it exhibits more elasticity and even more stability.
What are two dough making processes?
For yeast-based and sponge (such as sourdough) breads, a common production technique is the dough is mixed, kneaded, and then left to rise. Many bread doughs call for a second stage, where the dough is kneaded again, shaped into the final form, and left to rise a final time (or proofed) before baking.
How does oil affect gluten development?
Oils and fats are used in a baked product to reduce the development of gluten giving the foods a crumbly texture. The fats and oils break down the gluten into “shorter strands” hence the term shorteners. Coating the flour in fat prevents the flour from absorbing water hindering the formation of gluten.
How does salt affect gluten development?
Salt tightens the gluten structure.
The tightening gives strength to the gluten, enabling the dough to efficiently hold carbon dioxide, which is released into the dough as a byproduct of the yeast fermentation.
How does sugar affect gluten development?
Sugar creates texture
Sugar easily binds with water, which accomplishes two main things. 1) It locks in moisture, keeping your baked goods from drying out; and 2) It inhibits the development of gluten which keeps your cookies, cakes and sweet breads softer.
Why is it important to allow the dough or batter to rise?
After kneading a yeast dough, you must allow it to rest in a warm place. During the rest time, the yeast acts upon the sugars in the bread dough to form alcohol and carbon dioxide. … The alcohol evaporates during baking, the carbon dioxide causes the bread to rise.
How is baking bread a chemical reaction?
The trapped carbon dioxide makes the dough rise, and the alcohol evaporates during the baking process. This is an irreversible chemical change, because by consuming the sugar, the yeast has created new substances—carbon dioxide and ethanol—and the reaction cannot be reversed.
What are the three main processes that occur during mixing?
In general, there are three phases of mixing in the production of doughs and batters:
- Blending the ingredients.
- Forming the dough.
- Developing the dough.
What are the 2 types of batters and 2 types of dough?
- Pour batters, such as pancake batter, have a liquid-to-dry-ratio of about 1:1 and so pours in a steady stream. …
- Drop batters, such as cornbread and muffin batters, have a liquid-to-dry ratio of about 1:2.
- Soft doughs, such as many chocolate chip cookie doughs, have a liquid-to-dry ratio of about 1:3.
How does gluten contribute to the formation of certain baked products?
When gluten bonds are formed, the protein then can form elastic films in the dough, which provides structure and helps to trap gases, assisting in leavening of products. When heated, the gluten proteins coagulate (solidifies), and a semi-rigid structure forms providing texture to various wheat-based products.
Does Gluten get weaker the longer you mix?
The color or the material of a baking pan has no effect on the baking process. The most commonly used liquids in baking are water and milk. Durum wheat is the most popular type of wheat for making baked products. Gluten gets weaker the longer you mix.