What are the four major factors that determine how much gluten will be developed in a dough or batter?
However, if there is too little gluten in the pastry dough it will fall apart easily. Mixing, type of flour, amount of water, and presence of fats are amongst the factors that can affect gluten formation. Fats can prevent gluten development by creating a coating around the proteins (see shortening).
How do you prevent gluten formation in a cake?
In order to keep the baked goods soft and have a melt in the mouth texture, we have to avoid gluten development in our batter. And the correct way to do this is by gently folding the flour in the batter instead of vigorously mixing in it. We only fold the flour in till no streaks of flour are seen in the batter.
What is gluten and why do we have to control its development in baking?
Gluten is what gives traditional baked goods structure. When a dough or batter is baked, the gluten network stretches to contain the gasses that are leavening the baked good. A strong gluten network will produce baked goods with a lot of chew and a sturdy structure.
Which of the following affects the development of gluten in dough and batters?
The condition of water used in bread doughs, specifically hardness and PH, also affect gluten. Water hardness refers to mineral content of the water, especially its calcium content. Water w/ high mineral content is called hard-they strengthen gluten, often to much, making the dough too elastic and hard to work.
How do you know if gluten is developed?
Holds Its Shape – Lift the ball of dough in your hand and hold it in the air for a second. If it holds its ball shape, that means the gluten is tight and strong. If it sags down between your fingers, the gluten is still loosey-goosey and needs some more kneading.
How does oil affect gluten development?
Oils and fats are used in a baked product to reduce the development of gluten giving the foods a crumbly texture. The fats and oils break down the gluten into “shorter strands” hence the term shorteners. Coating the flour in fat prevents the flour from absorbing water hindering the formation of gluten.
How can you control gluten development?
Gluten doesn’t even exist until flour becomes wet. Water is what coaxes the two wheat proteins glutenin and gliadin to combine and form gluten. So by adding or withholding water from dough or batter, you can encourage or deter gluten’s development. When you want to maximize gluten, a moderate amount of water is ideal.
How does salt affect gluten development?
Salt tightens the gluten structure.
The tightening gives strength to the gluten, enabling the dough to efficiently hold carbon dioxide, which is released into the dough as a byproduct of the yeast fermentation.
What are the two most important steps in making biscuits?
The first is to coat the flour in fat helping to reduce gluten development. The second is to distribute little pieces of solid fat throughout the dough which will melt in the oven creating little pockets of flakiness.
How does sugar affect gluten development?
Sugar creates texture
Sugar easily binds with water, which accomplishes two main things. 1) It locks in moisture, keeping your baked goods from drying out; and 2) It inhibits the development of gluten which keeps your cookies, cakes and sweet breads softer.
What are the two main categories for flour?
Categories of Wheat Flour
Wheat flour can be divided into 2 main categories: Whole wheat flour and white flour.
How do you make dough stretchy?
Combine a pinch of salt with one half cup of vital wheat gluten in your mixing bowl. Add three tablespoons of water and mix, first with the spoon, then with your hands. Add one or two more tablespoons of water, if needed, until the flour sticks together and forms a nice soft ball.
How does dough temperature affect gluten development?
TEMPERATURE & GLUTEN Temperature also affects gluten development: At warmer temperatures gluten in bread dough exhibits less elastic properties ▪ At cooler temperatures it exhibits more elasticity and even more stability.
What are the three main ways that gluten is developed during bread making?
What are the three main ways that gluten is developed during bread making? Gluten develops and doughs mature through mixing (mechanical dough development), through the use of maturing agents, such as ascorbic acid (chemical dough development), and during fermentation and proofing.
What are the two types of batters?
In the world of the batters we have mainly two types of batters : tempura batters and adhesion batters.